How does air conditioning work? In this concise blog, I will discuss the process:

Air conditioning has been a vital part of our lives since the dawn of the modern era. Whether it is a humid summer or a cold winter, we must always feel the need for air conditioning. Because of the effects of global warming, air conditioning is becoming an increasingly important part of our lives. As an expert in this field, I am explaining the process of air conditioning, its working principles, and the types of air conditioning processes in an easy example, so let’s get started.

What Is Fundamental Air Conditioning, and How Does It Work?

In technical terms, the basic air conditioning system is the most popular method used in various areas of refrigeration and air conditioning. Its \”Vapor Compression\” or \”Mechanical System\” functions in four basic steps:

Compression Process:


In this process, starting from the evaporator, low-temperature, low-pressure vapor refrigerant (gas that is used as a cooling agent, like Freon, R-22, R-134a, R-400, etc.) comes to the compressor suction line. A mechanical compressor is then used to compress the refrigerant. The compressor\’s suction inlet introduces refrigerant, and the piston applies pressure to increase its pressure and temperature. After compressing the vapor state, the refrigerant gains temperature and pressure and then proceeds to the next stage of the cycle, condensation, where it is in a high-temperature and high-pressure vapor state.

Condensation Process:

In the condenser, vapor-state, high-temperature, and high-pressure refrigerant came from the discharge port or outlet of the compressor. The condenser contains a shell of pipeline that is cooled by natural air or by a fan unit. In the condensation state, refrigerant loses its temperature, so it is formed as a liquid-state, high-pressure, low-temperature refrigerant and then goes through the expansion process.

Expansion Process:

Low-temperature, high-pressure liquid refrigerant enters an expansion device (which resembles a large shell) via a capillary tube or a very thin pipe from the end of the condenser and loses pressure. When the refrigerant loses its pressure, it becomes a low-temperature, low-pressure liquid-state refrigerant. Then the low-pressure and low-temperature refrigerant supply go to the next step of the cycle, called the evaporation process.

Evaporation process:

Low-pressure, low-temperature liquid refrigerant enters the evaporator and transfers heat to the evaporator coil by blowing air into it via a blower fan, after which the refrigerant vaporizes and travels to the compressor as vaporized refrigerant. In this process, refrigerants absorb heat from the room\’s temperature and cool it.


The cycle of mechanical vapor compression continues this four-step process over and over again to meet the desired temperature needed to cool the room perfectly. The evaporator unit contains a temperature sensor that commands the compressor to continue the cycle. After reaching the desired temperature, the sensor stops the compressor, and when the room temperature reaches the set limit, the sensor again starts the vapor compression cycle by restarting the compressor.

The following areas are used in the vapor compression or mechanical air conditioning process:

Mechanically based basic air conditioning is used in many aspects of our daily lives. From split type air conditioning to wall mounted air conditioning, VRF units, basic refrigerators, portable air conditioners, and water-cooling units, there are many more areas of air conditioning.

What is HVAC air conditioning or vapor absorption air conditioning?


Absorption air conditioning is a type of air conditioning system that runs on heat energy instead of electrical energy. This system uses a combination of water and either ammonia or lithium brom

ide as the refrigerant. The heat source for the system can be steam, natural gas, liquid petroleum, kerosene, solar or geothermal energy, or even electricity.

Generator or Heat Pump:

In the absorption system, there are no mechanical compressors as in the vapor compression system, but a generator or heat pump is used to heat the primary refrigerant ammonia or lithium bromide with the secondary refrigerant water absorber solution. The heat source causes the refrigerant to boil and turn into a high-pressure, high-temperature vapor, which is then shifted to the condenser unit.

Condenser Unit:

A very thick refrigerant solution enters the condenser unit at high temperature and pressure and is condensed back into a liquid by the condenser. Refrigerant vapor from the generator is condensed in the condenser by cooling water. Condensation is a constant pressure process where refrigerant (water) gives off its heat to cool secondary refrigerant water. Heat from the secondary refrigerant (water) is thus carried to the atmosphere in this manner. After exchanging heat with air in cooling towers of the same HVAC system, cooling water is recycled in water-cooled chillers.

Evaporator Unit:

The secondary refrigerant water is then supplied to an evaporator, which cools it. The water is then supplied to each room via a pipeline into an evaporation duct outlet. And a fan blows air into it, transferring heat to the room temperature. This process cools the air, which is then released into the room.

The cooled the primary refrigerant is then directed to the absorber, where it is separated from the secondary refrigerant water, and the solution is returned to the generator. This process is repeated continuously to keep the room cool.

The vapor absorption refrigeration system is used in the following areas:

Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System Used in Various Big Areas of Buildings, such as Central Air Conditioning, Data Center Air Conditioning, and Cold Storage One of the benefits of absorption air conditioning is that it can be more energy-efficient, especially when powered by natural gas or solar energy. Additionally, it is quiet and does not emit CFCs that are harmful to the ozone layer. However, maintenance of this system should only be done by trained professionals, as the chemicals used, such as ammonia, are dangerous and reactive with some metals.


Finally, it should be noted that air conditioners are vital modern tools. Almost all of the information you want regarding an air conditioning system—including its features and operation—has been addressed in this article.